San Marino Flag
History of the San Marino Flag
The San Marino Flag features two equal horizontal bands in the colors of white and blue. In the center, is the national Coat of Arms. The Coat of Arms is a shield, surrounded by an oak and laurel wreath, that contains three mountains, three towers on top of the mountains, with a crown on top of the shield. At the bottom of the shield is a ribbon which contains the word "LIBERTAS" which means Liberty.
The white color represents the snow that covers Mt. Titano as well as representing peace and the blue color represents the sky as well as representing liberty. On the coat of arms, the three mountains represent the three peaks of Mt. Titano and the three towers represent the three fortresses of San Marino, which are "La Guita," "La Cesta," and "La Montale." The three towers hold great importance, due to the defense that they provided for the country. The oak and laurel wreath represent stability and defense. The San Marino flag was adopted on April 6th, 1862.
San Marino is a landlocked European country that is bordered by one country, Italy. It is the 3rd smallest country in Europe and the 5th smallest country in the world, following Vatican City, Monaco, Nauru, and Tuvalu. The capital of San Marino is called ‘The City of San Marino.’ The largest city is called Serravalle.
It is thought that San Marino was discovered by a stonemason named Marinus (which is where the country's name originates from). Marinus escaped from the Roman Empire and founded a monastic community where he built a chapel and monastery on Mt. Titano. The state of San Marino grew from the small community that Marinus had created.
The small community, also known as the "Titanic Republic" was founded on September 3rd, 301. In 1631, the independence of San Marino was recognized. During WWI, when Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary, on May 23rd, 1915, San Marino chose to remain neutral, which made the Italians question their motives and suspect that San Marino had Austrian spies. Between 1923-1943, San Marino was ruled by the Sammarinese Fascist Party (PFS) until their collapse during WWII, following Mussolini's collapse. On April 1st, 1944, the PFS regained power until September 1944 when the German forces occupied San Marino for three days (September 17th – September 20th) as they were attacked by Allied forces.
San Marino's economy is reliant on tourism, manufacturing, and the export of ceramics, paint, clothing, and fabric, making San Marino one of the wealthiest nations. Over three million tourists visit the country each year with the main tourist attraction being Mt. Titano and the three towers. La Guaita is the oldest of the towers and the most well-known. It was built during the 11th century and for a short period of time, it was used as a prison. La Cesta tower which was built on the highest point of the mountain was built during the 13th century and La Montale tower, which was built at the lowest point of the mountain, is the only tower that is not open to the public as it is still privately owned.